Proximate Composition and Relative Preference Mapping of Milk Chocolate Emulsified with Okra Pectin.

Keywords: Chocolate formulation, Ingredient, Emulsifier, Sensory acceptability


In chocolate, the primary emulsifier used is soy lecithin. However, soy lecithin is a major allergen to some people and also considered expensive as it is imported. In this study, three different genotypes of okra pectin were extracted and used to replace lecithin in chocolate production as an emulsifier. The okra pectin samples were combined in different ratios and used in different chocolate formulations. The new formulations were evaluated by means proximate analysis and relative preference mapping (RPM). Results showed that there were no significant differences between the moisture content (1.85-2.25 %) and the ash content (2.54-2.82%) for all formulations (p > 0.05). However, there were slight differences among the formulations regarding the fat (30.34-30.99%) and sugar (22.12-31.61%) contents. The RPM results indicated that product F8, F9, F10, F13, F14 and F16 were considered to be similar to the control and liked as much as the control. All these products contain some ratio of Balabi pectin in their formulation except product F10. Product F8 which was the most liked product had fat and sugar contents lower than the control. The study showed that none of the products containing a single pectin variety was found in the area of interest suggesting that combining the pectin varieties gives a better result in the formulation of chocolate compared to using pectin from a single okra genotype.

Author Biographies

Miss Gifty Williams, Department of Food Science and Technology, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana

Miss Gifty Williams is a PhD candidate in the Department of Food Science and Technology, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST). She holds MSc. degree in Food Science and Technology from Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology and BSc. degree in Chemistry from the University of Cape Coast. Miss Williams has in-depth knowledge in food chemistry, food product development, food microbiology, food processing and sensory evaluation. Her research interest and area of specialization is food chemistry and food product development. She has two years teaching experience and has keen interest in developing innovative and healthy food products using underutilized locally grown crops to promote food nutrition security.

Dr. Maame Yaakwaah Adjei, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana.

Dr. Maame Yaakwaah Adjei joined the University of Ghana as a Lecturer in September 2013, she is currently a Senior Lecturer and teaches Food Science at the Department of Nutrition and Food Science. Dr Adjei’s current research interests are in Sensory and Consumer Science. She established and manages the first sensory science laboratory at the university. She is interested in industry engagement and works hard to build stronger working relationship with industry, providing technical support in product development using her strong sensory background. She is also interested in Dairy and Dairy products research. She has supervised and worked on various projects in these areas. She led a team of researchers to the Dairy Research, Improvement, and Innovation Consortium (DRIInC), which she also heads. She is passionate about youth entrepreneurship and seeks to engage young researchers throughout her research work. In this project she is leading the sensory and consumer insights that will guide the development of innovative indigenous fruits and vegetables. Some interesting opportunities are presented through her work in dairy processing and quality improvement.

Priscilla Ahadzi, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana.

Priscilla Ahadzi is a dedicated researcher with a BSc in Nutrition and Food Science and an MPhil in Food Science. She has 8 years’ experience in sensory and consumer science with a strong background in temporal methods such as TDS, TI, and TCATA, as well as quantitative descriptive analysis, projective mapping, shelf-life tests, and consumer research methods. She joined the Sensory Evaluation Laboratory of the Department of Nutrition and Food Science at the University of Ghana in 2016 and was appointed as Senior Technologist in 2020. There, she led sensory and consumer studies in dairy, fish, and agro-produce and provided guidance to student sensory projects. Priscilla now works with MMR Research Ltd since 2022 and currently the Sensory Research Manager, utilising her expertise to provide quantitative and qualitative sensory data and insights to drive R&D innovation, machine learning, and consumer insights for leading global beverage brands.

Cecille Wendy Aboagye, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana.

Cecille Wendy Aboagye works as a sensory science analyst at the Sensory Evaluation Laboratory at the Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Ghana. She holds a B.Sc. degree in Nutrition and Food Science, as well as a MPhil degree in Food Science. Her research interests span various areas, including product characterization, development of indigenous food sensory libraries, commodity quality evaluation, and product optimization by employing sensory evaluation techniques that leverage human senses to enhance food products.

Prof. Jacob Kwaku Agbenorhevi, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and technology

Prof. Jacob K. Agbenorhevi is an Associate Professor in the Department of Food Science and Technology, KNUST-Kumasi. Research areas include Food Chemistry (composition and analysis), Food Biopolymers and Rheology, Food Product Development and Sensory Evaluation, Food Safety, Nutrition and Health. Prof. Agbenorhevi research interests are focused in the area of polysaccharide characterization, physical chemistry of food/hydrocolloid systems and nutritional improvement of foods. Served as a collaborating scientist and coordinator on a number of projects/research teams. Isolation and characterization of polysaccharides for use as functional ingredient in food and/ or pharmaceutical systems. These include physical, chemical and technological properties of starch, pectin and gums found in underutilized sources for their beneficial applications to improve livelihood and global food and nutrition security.

Dr. Leonard Delali Kodjo De-Souza , Department of Food Science and Technology, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana

Dr. Leonard Delali Kodjo De-Souza is a Lecturer at the Department of Food Science and Technology, KNUST. He holds a Diplom Ingenieur (Dipl.-Ing.) in Fermentation Technology from Voronezh State Technological Academy, Russia. With a diverse international background, with roles at the CSIR Food Research Institute on the UNIDO Sorghum Malt Project and also the Food and Drugs Authority. Dr. De-Souza earned his PhD from Voronezh State University of Engineering Technologies. He has published over 16 academic papers and co-authored 2 patents, emphasizing his commitment to innovation and knowledge dissemination. His expertise lies in Food Processing Technology, Food Engineering, and more.

Dr. Fidelis M. Kpodo , Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, University of Health and Allied Sciences, Ho, Ghana

Dr. Fidelis M. Kpodo is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, University of Health and Allied Sciences (UHAS). He is passionate about delivering excellence in the area of biopolymer science for technological applications that impact health and well-being. His career focus is targeted at isolating biopolymers from agrowaste and underutilized crops and apply them in the formulation of food product to encourage usage, improve nutrition, add value to agricultural produce, reduce post-harvest losses, empower industries with appropriate modern technologies and ultimately assure food and nutrition security.

Ms Genevieve Pawar, Cocoa Processing Company Limited, Tema, Ghana

Ms Genevieve Pawar is the Manager- Research and Development at the Cocoa Processing Company (CPC) Limited, Tema-Ghana. She has worked for over 25 years in the Research Laboratory and as Marketing Manager at CPC. She has considerable experience in product research and team management. She holds BSc  Biochemistry and MSc Food Science and Technology from KNUST, and Executive MBA in Marketing from University of Ghana, Legon-Accra. She has been involved in the review of ingredients used in chocolate manufacture for several years. This includes the development of sugar-free chocolate and drinking chocolates. She also organised and facilitated several training programmes including artisanal/handmade chocolate short courses for stakeholders. Supervised several projects and internship students from KNUST at CPC. Collaboration with KNUST has been successful and still ongoing.

How to Cite
Williams, G., Adjei, M. Y., Ahadzi, P., Aboagye , C. W., Agbenorhevi, J. K., De-Souza, L. D. K., Kpodo, F. M., & Pawar , G. (2024). Proximate Composition and Relative Preference Mapping of Milk Chocolate Emulsified with Okra Pectin. Journal of Science and Technology, 42(2), 62 - 75.

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